The best methods of modifying behavior according to behavioral studies and what they should be used for are as follows:
It is often said by slaves that be best motivator is positive reinforcement. This can only be true if it is applied where it is intended to work. (Example, you can’t reinforce bad behavior.) Punishment does work best in some cases; usually this is changed an existing behavior.
Operant conditioning is based on four concepts for dealing with proper and bad behavior. No one by itself is enough.
1) Positive reinforcement: – getting something pleasant, e.g. a weekly pay check or a compliment.
2) Negative reinforcement: taking away or avoiding something unpleasant, e.g. avoiding stress by not trying for a position.
3) Positive punishment: administering or receiving something unpleasant, e.g. being spanked.
4) Negative punishment: taking away or being deprived of something pleasant, e.g. being denied TV or fun activity or the car.
It may be helpful to understand reinforcements and punishments and how they apply to changing behavior.
There are five basic processes in operant conditioning: positive and negative reinforcement strengthen behavior; punishment, response cost, and extinction weaken behavior.
1) Positive Reinforcement: In positive reinforcement, a positive reinforcer is added after a response and increases the frequency of the response.
2) Negative Reinforcement: In negative reinforcement, after the response the negative reinforcer is removed which increases the frequency of the response. (Note: There are two types of negative reinforcement: escape and avoidance. In general, the learner must first learn to escape before he or she learns to avoid.)
3) Response Cost: If positive reinforcement strengthens a response by adding a positive stimulus, then response cost has to weaken a behavior by subtracting a positive stimulus. After the response the positive reinforcer is removed which weakens the frequency of the response.
4) Punishment: After a response a negative or aversive stimulus is added which weakens the frequency of the response.
5) Extinction: No longer reinforcing a previously reinforced response (using either positive or negative reinforcement) results in the weakening of the frequency of the response. The behavior is ignored and therefore weakens over time. This is true where a reinforcer is expected for behavior.
People will move toward new and different behaviors if they view these new and different behaviors as:
Adding new positive conditions;
1) Preserving existing positive conditions.
2) Avoiding new negative conditions.
3) Eliminating existing negative conditions.
Typically, people will shy away from new and different behaviors if they view these new and different behaviors as:
1) Adding new negative conditions.
2) Preserving existing negative conditions.
3) Avoiding new positive conditions.
4) Eliminating existing positive conditions.
Punishment works better when accompanied with reinforcement for proper behavior:
Julian Rotter stated that behavior modification requires more than classical or operant conditioning alone. He stated that individual differences are important in behavioral training. The individual’s thoughts and emotions play a part in behavioral training. Rotter stated that behavior is directed toward a need (goal) and behavioral potential and that expectancy, reinforcement value and psychological situations are factors that should be considered and are measurements for success.
Some techniques used for behavioral change in slave training are:
1) Behavior-Rehearsal: Forced to act in appropriate way – as a slave.
2) Modeling: Modeling the example of other slaves.
3) Non-reinforcement: Not rewarding bad behavior.
4) Positive Reinforcement: Rewarding good behavior.
5) Punishment: Punishing for bad behavior after discussing and admitting bad behavior.
6) Discipline Training: Practice correct behavior and observe and make corrections.
7) slave Rules: Guidelines for behavior.
8) Recording and Self-Monitoring: Journal entries to record good and bad behavior.
9) Stimulus Control: Removing stimulus of bad behavior.
10) Communication Training: Learning to communicate deep thoughts and feelings. Being open.
11) Social Skills Development: Practicing skills in public and private.
12) Contracts: To change behavior, including desired change, rewards and punishment.
13) Token Economy: Involves token gained by proper behavior and after a certain number is earned a reward is received. Coins can also be removed for bad behavior.
This is a brief look at the push/pull theory. It describes the internal struggle a slave goes through in the process of accepting changes during training.
Accepting the overall goal of her Master to train her as a slave does not mean that no resistance to the actual training will be encountered. She feels a resistance to some changes.
Slavery means the giving of personal freedoms to a Master and agreeing to allow a Master to make choices for her. She gives her Master many of freedoms she once enjoyed and controlled. Loss of these valued freedoms can foster resistance.
She feels a push/pull. She feels two opposing motivation forces. Often, the slave not only feels an internal Push to achieve the goals established by her Master but also a pull by an internal force to resist change and maintain her old behavior and attitude (status quo). Therefore, change only occurs when the motivation to serve, obey and please overrides the pulling motivation to maintain the status quo. The need to change must be stronger then the pull. Your job it to make the push strong and pull weaker or at least do not let it grow.
When the push force is greater or equal to the pull force their is no change. For behavior to change the forces preserving status quo must be changed.
1) Increasing the motivation force for change.
2) By weakening the force to maintain status quo.
3) Or a combination of both.
Change occurs in a three-step process. useful concept in slave training:
A) The first step is unfreezing. This is a critical first step in the change process. Unfreezing is encouraging the slave to discard old behavior by shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains status quo. This is accomplished by eliminating rewards and showing that the old behavior has no value to her slavery. By unfreezing the slave accepts that change needs to occur. The slave surrenders by allowing the boundaries for their status quo to be opened in preparation for change.
B) The second step is the process of moving. In the moving state, new attitudes, values, and behaviors are substituted for old ones. This is accomplished by providing rationale for change, goals, motivation and training to develop skills.
C) The third step is refreezing. This is where the new attitude, values, and behavior are established as the new status quo. This is accomplished by rewarding and institutionalizing the new.